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There are two types of steroids: Corticosteroids ( and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids. This page is about Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids which are DEA Schedule III substances under the Controlled Substances Act. Only a small number of anabolic steroids are approved for either human or veterinary use. Steroids may be prescribed by a licensed physician for the treatment of testosterone deficiency, delayed puberty, low red blood cell count, breast cancer, and tissue wasting resulting from AIDS.


Anabolic Steroids

Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male sex hormone testosterone.

  • Health care providers can prescribe steroids to treat various medical conditions. But some athletes and bodybuilders misuse these drugs to boost performance or improve their physical appearance.
  • People who abuse anabolic steroids usually take them orally, inject them into the muscles, or apply them to the skin with a cream or gel.
  • People misuse steroids in a variety of doses and schedules.
  • Misuse of anabolic steroids might lead to short-term effects, including paranoid jealousy, extreme irritability and aggression, delusions, impaired judgement, and mania.
  • Continued steroid misuse can act on some of the same brain pathways and chemicals that are affected by other drugs, including dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems.
  • Anabolic steroid misuse might lead to serious long-term, even permanent, health problems.
  • Several other effects are gender- and age-specific.
  • People who inject steroids increase their risk of contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or hepatitis.
  • Even though anabolic steroids do not cause the same high as other drugs, they can lead to addiction.
  • Some people seeking treatment for anabolic steroid addiction have found behavioral therapy and medications to be helpful. Medicines can help treat symptoms of withdrawal in some cases.

  • The use of steroids continues to make news and sports headlines as athletes and bodybuilders use them illegally to gain an advantage on the playing field.
  • Anabolic steroids refer to hormones that are either taken orally or by injection that influence the body's hormonal system to produce extra testosterone.
  • The goal of taking anabolic steroids is to increase muscle mass.
  • Anabolic refers to this muscle-building capability.
  • Anabolic steroids should not be confused with catabolic corticosteroids, which are used routinely as anti-inflammatory medications to help treat illnesses in which inflammation is part of the disease process.
  • In today's society, anabolic steroid use has become common to augment sports performance, and abuse of these drugs begins as early as middle school.

Anabolic steroids are synthetically produced variants of the naturally occurring male hormone testosterone that are used in an attempt to promote muscle growth, enhance athletic or other physical performance, and improve physical appearance. Testosterone, nandrolone, stanozolol, methandienone, and boldenone are some of the most frequently abused anabolic steroids.

  • Steroids are ingested orally, injected intramuscularly, or applied to the skin. The doses abused are often 10 to 100 times higher than the approved therapeutic and medical treatment dosages. Users typically take two or more ana-bolic steroids at the same time in a cyclic manner, believing that this will improve their effectiveness and minimize the adverse effects.
  • In some individuals, steroid use can cause dramatic mood swings, increased feelings of hostility, impaired judgment, and increased levels of aggression (often referred to as 'roid rage'). When users stop taking steroids, they may experience depression that may be severe enough to lead one to commit suicide. Anabolic steroid use may also cause psychological dependence and addiction.
  • In adolescents, anabolic steroid use can stunt the ultimate height that an individual achieves.
  • In boys, steroid use can cause early sexual development, acne, and stunted growth.
  • In adolescent girls and women, anabolic steroid use can induce permanent physical changes, such as deepening of the voice, increased facial and body hair growth, menstrual irregularities, male pattern baldness, and lengthening of the clitoris.
  • In men, anabolic steroid use can cause shrinkage of the testicles, reduced sperm count, enlargement of the male breast tissue, sterility, and an increased risk of prostate cancer.
  • In both men and women, anabolic steroid use can cause high cholesterol levels, which may increase the risk of coronary artery disease, strokes, and heart attacks.
  • Anabolic steroid use can also cause acne and fluid retention. Oral preparations of anabolic steroids, in particular, can damage the liver.
  • Anabolic steroids are not associated with overdoses. The adverse effects a user would experience develop from the use of steroids over time.

Steroids & Performance-enhancing Substances Common Myths :

  1. Steroids are safe: Myth - The side effects are significant and are more likely to be serious the younger the person taking anabolic steroids.
  2. Taking any kind of steroid will result in death: Myth - The first thing that we need to understand is that steroids are drugs. Even Tylenol and Aspirin can cause serious problems if you take them in large quantities. All drugs when misused and abused have the potential to kill; it's not only steroids.
  3. Injectable Steroids are safer than oral steroids: Myth - A lot of people think that because there are some oral steroids out there that are decidedly liver toxic, all oral steroids must be riskier to use than injectables.
  4. Steroids won't really stunt your growth: Myth - Teenagers and adolescents who abuse anabolic/androgenic steroids are at risk to remain short their entire lives, never reaching their body's intended natural height.
  5. All steroids are pretty much the same: Myth - Anabolic/androgenic steroids, made popular by bodybuilders, professional athletes and the local muscle guys at your gym, are basically synthetic male testosterone. The anabolic component deals with muscle and skeletal tissue growth. The androgenic component deals with secondary male sex traits such as hair growth, sex drive, and sperm health. Anabolic/androgenic steroids can also convert a third component, an estrogenic component, which regulates numerous functions in both male and female.
  6. Steroid abuse isn't really a big problem in the U.S: Myth - More and more people abuse steroids each year. With professional athletes inadvertently promoting steroids in the news, bodybuilding magazines overtly promoting steroids in their ads and so-called steroid experts preaching "safe" steroid use on the internet, many young people are caught up in the hype, wanting a better body, a higher batting average, or a faster quarter mile.
  7. All steroids are pills: Myth - On the issue of variety, there are many different types of steroid out there. There are injectable steroids and oral steroids.
  8. Only a certain kind of person uses steroids: Myth - Many types of people abuse steroids. The reasons people are getting involved with steroids are varied.
  9. Steroids aren't addictive: Myth - In spite of the prohibitive cost, negative physical side effects and numerous warnings from a host of sources (print media, internet, and television), an undetermined number of steroid abusers continue taking massive amounts of these synthetic hormones.
  10. Steroids aren't as illegal as other drugs: Myth - The United States government considers steroids as Schedule III controlled substances, which are medically accepted substances having a low or moderate physical dependence and a high psychological dependence.
  11. It's hard to get caught buying steroids over the internet: Myth - The newest and fastest growing way to get caught buying illegal steroids is by ordering them through the mail. Those who order steroids over the Internet run the risk of the delivery being intercepted by U.S. Customs or postal authorities, causing an investigation and potentially an arrest. Many otherwise law-abiding adults have been arrested based on their receipt of anabolic steroids through the mail.
  12. Steroids are easy to get: Myth - Another misconception about steroids is that they are easily obtained. As far as accessibility, the truth is that they are illegal substances without a medical prescription, so your accessibility will be through the black market (good luck as far as quality). In addition, if you get caught in their possession without a prescription you may face up to 5 years in a federal prison.
  13. Steroids build muscle without working out: Myth - One of the biggest problems in today's society is that people are always looking for the quick fix. If you aren't satisfied with yourself and want to make a change, the ONLY way is to work at it. You must keep a healthy lifestyle!!!
  14. Steroids will make your penis smaller: Myth - Steroid abuse among males usually carries the stigma of a shrinking sex organ; however, it's the testicles that actually atrophy. The testicles stop production of natural testosterone while anabolic steroids are being used. They can shrivel from disuse and cause temporary sterility.
  15. Women don't use steroids: Myth - Studies show four times as many men abuse steroids, as women, but the number of women is still significant.
  16. Women will end up looking like men if they take more than a few cycles of steroids: Myth - This is something that has happened so much in our industry that everyone assumes that all women who use steroids are going to look like men. However, a woman can use select drugs, many more than you might imagine, and not end up looking like either a linebacker or your hairy next- door neighbor.
  17. Roid rage isn't real: Myth - Medical research's answer to whether steroids cause aggressive tendencies and adverse psychological effects has generally been "no." However, that's a misconception resulting from the fact that medical experimenters cannot ethically give large doses of steroids.

What Are Steroids?
The word has different meanings. Steroids are chemicals, often hormones, that your body makes naturally. They help your organs, tissues, and cells do their jobs. You need a healthy balance of them to grow and even to make babies. 'Steroids' can also refer to man-made medicines. The two main types are corticosteroids and anabolic-androgenic steroids (or anabolics for short).

What Are Anabolic Steroids Used For?
They're man-made versions of testosterone, a male sex hormone that helps build bigger muscles. You take them by mouth or get a shot into a muscle. A doctor can legally prescribe them if your body doesn't make enough testosterone. An example would be boys with delayed puberty. Doctors also prescribe them to men with low testosterone and people who lose muscle mass because of cancer, AIDS, and other health conditions.

Misuse of Anabolics:
Their performance- and muscle-boosting powers have led to widespread misuse and abuse. Abusers tend to use extremely high doses. Some take 100 times the dose legally prescribed for health problems.

Side Effects of Anabolics:
These steroids can cause bad acne and fluid retention. Long-term use can stop the body from making testosterone. In men, this causes smaller testicles, lower sperm counts, infertility, and breast growth. Women may have male-pattern baldness, facial hair growth, periods that change or stop, and a deeper voice. Teens who use them might stunt their bone growth and height. High doses can lead to extreme mood swings, anger, and aggression called 'roid rage.'

People use steroids for a variety of reasons:
Most media reports would have you believe steroid users are predominantly young men suffering a "crisis of male ego" who are on a "deadly crusade to get ripped". The focus tends to be on health harms and the danger associated with using these substances. After critically assessing the research in this field, we found people use steroids for a variety of reasons. And while steroid use does carry risks, not all users will develop personal problems or cause harm to others. The caricature of non-medical steroid users as narcissistic "gym bros" suffering from body image issues provides a simplistic account of user motivations. It ignores the spectrum of people who use steroids.

"Anabolic" refers to the drug's capacity to increase protein synthesis, which results in increased muscle tissue. "Androgenic" refers to its properties in promoting the development of male sex characteristics (for example, deep voice and body hair).

Another frequently cited side effect of non-medical steroid use is aggression and violence. In the mid-1980s, the notion steroid use leads to aggressive or violent behaviour became widespread, giving rise to the term "roid rage". There are likely to be many factors influencing the relationship between drugs (including steroids) and aggressive behaviour. This includes personality traits, neuropsychological risks, environmental influences, socioeconomic status, and/or the use of multiple substances at once. While some people who use steroids report increased irritation, the complexity of the relationship between hormones and behaviour suggests violent outbursts can't simply be accorded to using steroids.

Who uses anabolic steroids and why?
The majority of people who use anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes identify as male, typically in their mid to late 30's. A study completed by the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre found the following people typically use anabolic steroids:

  • Competitive athletes - who are motivated by their desire to succeed.
  • People concerned about their body image - recreational weight trainers and body builders and people working in the fashion and entertainment industries.
  • Body building professionals - people involved in body building as a competitive sport.
  • People who need muscle strength to do their job - bodyguards, security personal, construction workers, police and members of the armed services.
  • Young men - who want to increase their athletic performance or who are striving to reach the same physical appearance that is often portrayed in the media.

100 variations of Anabolic Steroids:
Steroids are the same as, or similar to, certain hormones in the body. The body makes steroids naturally to support such functions as fighting stress and promoting growth and development. But some people use steroid pills, gels, creams, or injections because they think steroids can improve their sports performance or the way they look. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same as, or similar to, androgens, the male-type sex hormones in the body. There are more than 100 variations of anabolic steroids. The most powerful androgen is testosterone. Although testosterone is mainly a mature male hormone, girls' bodies produce smaller amounts. Testosterone helps build muscle and promotes the masculine traits that guys develop during puberty, such as deepening of the voice and growth of body hair. Testosterone levels can also affect how aggressive a person is.

Common street names include:

  • Arnolds
  • Juice
  • Pumpers
  • Roids
  • Stackers
  • and Weight Gainers

Steroids are available in:

  • Tablets and capsules
  • Sublingual-tablets
  • Liquid drops
  • Gels
  • Creams
  • Transdermal patches
  • Subdermal implant pellets
  • Water-based and oil-based injectable solutions
The appearance of these products varies depending on the type and manufacturer.

What is their effect on the mind?
Case studies and scientific research indicate that high doses of anabolic steroids may cause mood and behavioral effects. In some individuals, anabolic steroid use can cause dramatic mood swings, increased feelings of hostility, impaired judgment, and increased levels of aggression (often referred to as 'roid rage'). When users stop taking steroids, they may experience depression that may be severe enough to lead one to commit suicide. Anabolic steroid use may also cause psychological dependence and addiction.

How do they make you feel?
Steroids can produce a variety of psychological effects ranging from euphoria to hostility. Some people who take steroids say the drugs make them feel powerful and energetic. However, steroids are also known to increase irritability, anxiety and aggression and cause mood swings, manic symptoms and paranoia, particularly when taken in high doses. High doses, especially when taken orally, cause nausea, vomiting and gastric irritation. Other effects include fluid retention and trembling.

Are they addictive?
Yes, they can be. Addiction to steroids differs from many other drugs in that tolerance to the effects does not develop. However, some people who abuse steroids meet criteria for drug dependence in that they:

  • Continue to take steroids, even when they experience negative physical or emotional effects
  • Spend large amounts of time and money obtaining the drugs
  • Experience withdrawal symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, restlessness, depression, loss of appetite, insomnia, reduced sex drive and the desire to take more steroids.

Why are anabolic steroids a concern?
Anabolic steroids have dangerous physical, mental, and emotional side effects. These may be more dangerous in young adults because they can stop growth. In women, they can cause permanent changes in the voice and genitals. After stopping these drugs, people can feel severe depression and moodiness. Injections of anabolic steroids carry the risk of infection with HIV or hepatitis if the drug users share needles. Also, anabolic steroids obtained without a prescription are unreliable. They may contain dangerous substances or may not even contain steroids.

Understand the risks:

The minor side effects of steroid use include:

  • Acne
  • Oily skin
  • Excess hair growth
  • Deepening of the voice

The major side effects include:

  • An increased risk of cancer
  • Increased risk of heart disease
  • Increased risk of liver disease
  • Jaundice
  • Fluid retention
  • Reduction in HDL-C ('good cholesterol')
  • High blood pressure
  • Changes in blood clotting

Side effects specific to men can include:

  • Testicular atrophy (the shrinking of the testicles)
  • Reduced sperm count
  • Infertility
  • Baldness
  • The development of breasts

For women side effects can include:

  • Enlargement of the clitoris
  • Changes in the body contour
  • Growth of facial hair
  • Disruption of the menstrual cycle
  • Deepened voice

An increase in androgenic (male) hormones may also lead to aggressive behavior. Research also indicates that people who use steroids often suffer from paranoid jealousy, extreme irritability, delusions, and impaired judgment stemming from feelings of invincibility.

Teens who misuse steroids are at a significant risk of suffering irreversible side effects, including stunted growth, accelerated puberty changes and abnormal sexual development.

Side Effects:
Males: Females:
  • Atrophy (wasting away of tissues or organs) of the testicles
  • Loss of sexual drive
  • Diminished or decreased sperm production
  • Breast and prostate enlargement
  • Decreased hormone levels
  • Sterility
  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Infertility
  • Masculinizing effects such as facial hair, diminished breast size, permanently deepened voice, and enlargement of the clitoris.

What happens when we use steroids?
When swallowed, steroids are absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine and stomach. When the route is injection, the drug is commonly injected into muscle mass where it is absorbed into the bloodstream. Steroids function in different ways. The primary way is by promoting the production of proteins. This results in an increase in muscle. In more than moderate doses, steroids also affect how we think and behave. The effects can be different for different people. Instead of feeling energetic and happy, some of us may feel irritated. Factors that can influence how steroids will affect us include:

  • Past experiences with the drug
  • Present mood and surroundings
  • Mental and physical health condition

Impact on well-being:
When we think about steroids, it is important to keep in mind that there can be health benefits. For instance, steroids have positive effects for people suffering from hormone deficiency and diseases that result in loss of muscle mass. But buying non-prescription steroids is always risky because the drugs are distributed in uncontrolled conditions and the diversion of veterinary steroids is common. The substance a person picks up at a gym may look legitimate but could be diluted or mixed with toxic material.

Steroid use can also affect our social lives. While using steroids may help us feel strong and assured about our appearance, using more than moderate amounts may lead to feeling irritable and agitated, potentially affecting our relationships. And while using steroids to develop a muscular body may make us feel more attractive, frequent use may lead to sexual difficulties. Steroid use can lead to acne. And frequent use of more than moderate amounts may result in temporary aggressive behaviour (research suggests some people may be more vulnerable to this negative effect than others). Regular use of more than moderate amounts is also linked to heart and liver disease.

The abuse of anabolic steroids can cause both temporary and permanent injury to anyone using them. Teenagers, whose bodies are still developing, are at heightened risk. An alarming number of them are trying steroids in hopes of improving their athletic prowess or their appearance.

  • Various studies have been conducted and generally reflect the findings of a Youth Risk and Behavior Surveillance System study, which estimated that among U.S. high school students, 4.9% of males and 2.4% of females have used anabolic steroids at least once in their lives. That's 375,000 young men and 175,000 young women.

Q: What are the side effects of taking anabolic steroids?

They are known to have a range of serious adverse effects on many organ systems, and in many cases the damage is not reversible. They include fertility problems, impotence, high blood pressure and cholesterol, and heart and liver abnormalities. Boys may experience shrinkage of the testes or the development of breast tissue; girls may experience menstrual irregularities and development of masculine qualities such as facial and body hair. Both may experience acne. Both boys and girls may also experience mood swings and aggressive behavior, which can impact the lives not only of those taking steroids, but of everyone around them.

Q: Are prescriptions needed to get steroids?

Yes, in fact anabolic steroids are classified as Schedule III Controlled Substances by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration with strict regulations, meaning that not only is a prescription required, but there are extra controls. For example, it is illegal to possess them without a prescription in the United States, and in most circumstances the prescription must be in written form and cannot be called in to a pharmacist. Labels on some steroids recommend testing of hormone levels during use.

Q: What would you say to a teen you knew was tempted by steroids?

I would emphasize both the short and long-term potential for serious harm to their health. Rather than making you look or perform better, steroids will more likely cause unfavorable results that could affect you for life. I would also remind them that there are a number of ways to increase muscle mass and athletic performance, including a sensible regimen of exercise and diet, without resorting to extreme and dangerous therapies.

Anabolic ratio and Androgenic ratio chart:


Anabolicum Vister (Quinbolone) (Oral Boldenone)50100
Anadrol 50 (Oxymetholone)45320
Anadur (Nandrolone Hexyloxyphenylpropionate)37125
Anatrofin (Stenbolone Acetate)107-144267-332
Anavar (Oxandrolone)24322-630
Andractim (Dihydrotestosteron)30-26060-220
Andriol (Testosterone Undecanoate)100100
Androderm (Testosterone)100100
Androgel (Testosterone)100100
Boldabol (Boldenone Acetate)50100
Cheque Drops (Mibolerone)1,8004,100
Danocrine (Danazol)37125
Deca-Durabolin (Nandrolone Decanoate)37125
Deposterona (Testosterone Blend)100100
Dianabol (Methandrostenolone)40-6090-210
Dinandrol (Nandrolone Blend)37125
Durabolin (NPP)37125
Dynabol (Nandrolone Cypionate)37125
Equipoise (Boldenone Undecylenate)50100
Esiclene (Formebolone)No DataNo Data
Genabol (Norbolethone)17350
Halotestin (Fluoxymesterone)8501,900
Laurabolin (Nandrolone Laurate)37125
Madol (Desoxymethyltestosterone)1871,200
Masteron (Drostanolone Propionate)25-4062-130
Megagrisevit-Mono (Clostebol Acetate)2546
MENT (Methylnortestosterone Acetate)6502,300
Methandriol (Mythelandrostenedi ol)30-6020-60
Methylhydroxynandrolone (MHN)2811304
Metribolone (Methyltrienolone)6,000-7,00012,000-30,000
Miotolan (Furazabol)73-94270-330
Myagen (Bolasterone)300575
Nilevar (Norethandrolone)22-55100-200
Omnadren (Testosterone Blend)100100
Orabolin (Ethylestrenol)20-400200-400
Oral TurinabolNone100+
Oranabol (Oxymesterone)50330
Orgasteron (Normethandrolone)325-580110-125
Parabolan (Tren Hexahydrobenzycarbonate)500500
Primobolan (Methenolone Acetate)44-5788
Primobolan Depot (Methenolone Enanthate)44-5788
Protabol (Thiomesterone)61456
Proviron (Mesterolone)30-40100-150
Sanabolicum (Nandrolone Cyclohexylpropionate)37125
Steranabol Ritardo (Oxabolone Cypionate)20-6050-90
Superdrol (Methyldrostanolone)40020
Sustanon 100 & 250100100
Synovex (Testosterone Propionate & Estradiol)100100
Test 400100100
Test Enanthate/Cypionate/Propionate/Susp & Blends100100
THG (Tetrahydrogestrinone)No DataNo Data
Tren Acetate/Enanthate & Blends500500
Winstrol (Stanozolol)30320

NIDA PDF Steroids

NIDA PDF Anabolic Steroids

NATA PDF Steroids

  • Anabolic Androgenic Steroids are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone
  • They increase protein within cells, especially in skeletal muscles
  • They also have varying degrees virilizing effects, including induction of the development and maintenance of masculine secondary sexual characteristics such as the growth of facial and body hair
  • Synthesized in the 1930s
  • Health risks can be produced by long-term use or excessive doses
  • Their use is referred to as doping and banned by most major sporting bodies
  • In countries where anabolic steroids are controlled substances, there is often a black market in which smuggled, clandestinely manufactured or even counterfeit drugs are sold to users
  • Most steroid users are not athletes.

    In the United States, between 1 million and 3 million people (1% of the population) are thought to have used AAS. Studies in the United States have shown that AAS users tend to be mostly middle-class heterosexual men with a median age of about 25 who are noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes and use the drugs for cosmetic purposes

The word anabolic, referring to anabolism, comes from the Greek anabole: "that which is thrown up, mound"


Some of the Steroids:

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