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Created Feb 2019 | Updated Dec 2020


  • [FLAKKA]
  • [GRAVEL]


DEA CODE 7545: Schedule 1



It goes by the name flakka. In some parts of the country, it is also called "gravel" because of its white crystal chunks that have been compared to aquarium gravel. The man-made drug causes a high similar to cocaine. But like "bath salts," a group of related synthetic drugs that were banned in 2012, flakka has the potential to be much more dangerous than cocaine.

A small overdose of the drug, which can be smoked, injected, snorted or injected, can lead to a range of extreme symptoms. Probably what has brought flakka the most attention is that it gives users what feels like the strength and fury of the Incredible Hulk.

Flakka, which gets its name from Spanish slang for a beautiful woman ("la flaca"), contains a chemical that is a close cousin to MDPV, a key ingredient in "bath salts."

Although a typical flakka high can last one to several hours, it is possible that the neurological effects can be permanent. Not only does the drug sit on neurons, it could also destroy them


Flakka Infographic Source:

Flakka is a dangerous drug, but it doesn't turn you into a zombie. Stories of horrific crimes resulting from drug use have been propagated by the media for over a century. Such stories began with cocaine in 1914 and were followed by "reefer madness" stories in the 1930s and reports of "LSD murders" in the 1960s. Our latest drug said to be associated with murderous stories is a "bath salt" called Flakka, which some media have even called a "zombie drug." It's gained this moniker by being associated with bizarre and violent behavior of some drug users.

Flakka is a new and potentially dangerous synthetic drug. Flakka is a street name for alpha-PVP - a very potent synthetic cathinone drug. Synthetic cathinones are a new variety of amphetamine-like street drugs, which are commonly referred to as "bath salts." Flakka is a very potent and inexpensive stimulant. In fact, it appears to be more potent than methamphetamine, and it is believed to have higher addictive potential. Flakka use has been found to be associated with paranoia, delusions and hallucinations (which may be somewhat dependent on frequent and/or extensive use). Within 16 months (2014-2015) in Fort Lauderdale and its suburbs alone, 63 supposed Flakka users died from acute intoxication, accidents, suicides and homicides.

The belief that Flakka or other "bath salt" use can turn you into a zombie or cannibal appears to have been a somewhat effective deterrent against use. However, what a lot of young people don't know is that they have been using Flakka or other "bath salts," or both, without knowing it, as these drugs are common adulterants, in "Molly" - the newest street name for ecstasy/MDMA.

World Health Organization 2015:
Alpha-PVP) is a psychomotor stimulant that has originally been explored in the 1960s. It is the desmethyl analogue of pyrovalerone. The first official notification of α-PVP detection in the European Union was received in February 2011. Alpha-PVP is a synthetic cathinone derivative and commonly referred to as a new psychoactive substance (NPS), 'research chemical', 'bath salt' or 'designer drug'. Alpha-PVP appears to act as a potent blocker at the dopamine and norepinephrine transporter and pre-clinical research into areas of abuse liability, psychomotor activity and drug discrimination suggests that the properties of alpha-PVP are reminiscent of MDPV, methamphetamine and cocaine.

Data indicate that alpha-PVP is most commonly encountered in powdered and tablet form. In addition to being available from Internet vendors in both wholesale and consumer amounts, alpha-PVP has also been encountered in products destined for the traditional illicit drugs market, for example, in form of ecstasy tablets. More than 130 deaths have been associated with alpha-PVP and among the non-fatal acute intoxications reported, hospitalizations were required. In cases where alpha-PVP use was established unambiguously, neurological and cardiovascular effects consistent with an extensive psychostimulant toxidrome have been observed and included cardiotoxicity, violent behavior and display of psychotic behavior. In addition to use by traditional recreational drug users it appears that alpha-PVP is also used by high-risk drug users including those who inject.


EMCDDA - Europol Joint Report 2015:
Data suggest that Alpha-PVP is likely to be a potent psychostimulant with abuse liability and dependence potential in humans; these effects may be similar to MDPV.

Alpha-PVP has been available in the European Union since at least February 2011 and has been detected in 28 Member States, Turkey and Norway. In most cases it has been seized as a powder, but other forms including tablets have been detected.

Multi-kilogram quantities of Alpha-PVP have been seized at European borders, which usually originate from China.Illicit production and tableting sites within the EU have also been seized.

Is sometimes the active ingredient in recreational drugs sold as bath salts. It may also be distinguished from bath salts and sold under a different name: flakka, a name used in Florida, or gravel in other parts of the U.S. It is reportedly available as cheaply as $5 per dose

  • A synthetic stimulant
  • Developed in the 1960s
  • Has been sold as a designer drug
  • Chemically related to pyrovalerone
  • Like other psychostimulants, can cause hyperstimulation, paranoia, and hallucinations

Symptoms are known to easily escalate into frightening delusions, paranoid psychosis, extreme agitation, and a multitude of other altered mental states

It has been reported to be the cause, or a significant contributory cause of death in suicides and overdoses caused by combinations of drugs

TYLER, Texas--Woman pleads guilty to laundering drug money through cryptocurrency - A woman from Jacksonville, Florida has pleaded guilty to federal money laundering charges, according to U.S. Attorney Damien M. Diggs of the Eastern District of Texas.
Thursday April 11, 2024 -

Champs face drug charges - They are jointly charged with supplying the class B drug methadone. The two men also face charges of supply and offering to supply alpha-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone, also known as PVP. PVP is ...
Tuesday April 16, 2024 -

Drugs That Could Give Your Patients a Dangerous High - Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. Log out ...
Tuesday March 21, 2017 -

Jamie Lines and Emma Gaffney sentenced over crack den in Mill Street, Diglis, Worcester - A white substance was found in a storage box in Gaffney's back bedroom, identified as the synthetic stimulant alpha-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP). There was 9.21g of the class B drug ...
Friday September 29, 2017 -

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