ZOPICLONE

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ZOPICLONE

  • [LUNESTA]
  • [IMOVANE]

DEA CODE 2784: Schedule 4

About Zopiclone:

  • Zopiclone is a type of sleeping pill that can be taken to treat bad bouts of insomnia.
  • It helps you fall asleep more quickly, and also helps stop you waking up during the night.
  • Zopiclone comes as tablets. It also comes as a liquid for people who find it hard to swallow tablets, but this has to be ordered specially by your doctor.
  • This medicine is only available on prescription.

Some people have reported doing things like sleepwalking, making food and making phone calls while they're asleep after taking zopiclone. They do not remember when they wake up. This is more likely to happen if you take zopiclone with alcohol or other medicines for mental health problems like depression or anxiety.


Key Facts:

  • Zopiclone takes around 1 hour to work.
  • Zopiclone is usually prescribed for just 2 to 4 weeks. This is because your body gets used to it quickly and after this time it's unlikely to have the same effect. Your body can also become dependent on it.
  • Common side effects are a metallic taste in your mouth, a dry mouth, and daytime sleepiness.
  • Do not drink alcohol while you're on zopiclone. Having them together can make you go into a deep sleep where you find it difficult to wake up.
  • Zopiclone is also called by the brand name Zimovane.

How much will I take?

  • Zopiclone can be taken by adults over the age of 18.
  • The usual dose is to take a 7.5mg tablet just before you go to bed.
  • It takes around 1 hour to work.

Zopiclone
Duration:

A nonbenzodiazepine sedative sleep aid (Z-drug), which can have hallucinogenic effects if taken while awake. Often causes users to have a metallic taste in the mouth for about 12h. Has been reported in some cases to cause certain users to black out, redose excessively and undertake dangerous activities such as driving.

RouteOnsetDurationAfter Effects
Tripsit Factsheets
All ROAs:15 minutes3.5-9 hours1-12 hours
Zopiclone Duration
Effects:
Lethargy, tiredness, a dreamlike state while awake, can induce heavy sleep.

Zopiclone (brand names Zimovane and Imovane) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. The therapeutic pharmacological properties of zopiclone include hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and myorelaxant properties. Zopiclone and benzodiazepines bind to different sites on GABAA-containing receptors, causing an enhancement of the actions of GABA to produce the therapeutic and adverse effects of zopiclone. The metabolite of zopiclone called desmethylzopiclone is also pharmacologically active, although it has predominately anxiolytic properties. Desmethylzopiclone has been found to have partial agonist properties, unlike the parent drug zopiclone, which is a full agonist. The mechanism of action of zopiclone is similar to benzodiazepines, with similar effects on locomotor activity and on dopamine and serotonin turnover. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled clinical trials that compared benzodiazepines to zopiclone or other Z drugs such as zolpidem and zaleplon has found few clear and consistent differences between zopiclone and the benzodiazepines in sleep onset latency, total sleep duration, number of awakenings, quality of sleep, adverse events, tolerance, rebound insomnia, and daytime alertness. After oral administration, zopiclone is rapidly absorbed, with a bioavailability around 75 - 80%. Time to peak plasma concentration is 1 - 2 hours. High-fat meal preceding zopiclone administration does not change absorption (as measured by AUC), but reduces peak plasma levels and delays its occurrence, thus may delay the onset of therapeutic effects. The pharmacokinetics of zopiclone in humans are stereoselective. After oral administration of the racemic mixture, Cmax (time to maximum plasma concentration), area under the plasma time-concentration curve (AUC) and terminal elimination half-life values are higher for the dextrorotatory enantiomers, owing to the slower total clearance and smaller volume of distribution (corrected by the bioavailability), compared with the levorotatory enantiomer. In urine, the concentrations of the dextrorotatory enantiomers of the N-dimethyl and N-oxide metabolites are higher than those of the respective antipodes. Zopiclone is sometimes used as a method of suicide. It has a similar fatality index to that of benzodiazepine drugs, apart from temazepam, which is particularly toxic in overdose.


Lunesta (eszopiclone)
Maximum Dosage:
Prescribers Digital Reference
Adults:3 mg/day PO.
Geriatric:2 mg/day PO.
Adolescents:Safety and efficacy have not been established.
Children:Safety and efficacy have not been established.

Lunesta (eszopiclone)
Side Effects:
RxList
Eszopiclone may cause a severe allergic reaction. Stop taking eszopiclone and get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; nausea, vomiting; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Some people using this medicine have engaged in activity while not fully awake and later had no memory of it. This may include walking, driving, or making phone calls. If this happens to you, stop taking eszopiclone and call your doctor right away.
Serious injury or death could occur if you walk or drive while you are not fully awake.
Call your doctor at once if you have:
  • anxiety, depression, aggression, agitation
  • memory problems, unusual thoughts or behavior
  • thoughts of hurting yourself
  • confusion, hallucinations (hearing or seeing things)
Common side effects may include:
  • day-time drowsiness, dizziness, "hangover" feeling
  • headache, anxiety
  • dry mouth
  • unusual or unpleasant taste in your mouth
  • rash
  • cold or flu symptoms such as fever, body aches, sore throat, cough, runny or stuffy nose
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Lunesta (eszopiclone) (Rx)
Black Box Warnings:

Complex sleep behaviors including sleep-walking, sleep-driving, and engaging in other activities while not fully awake may occur with therapy; some of these events may result in serious injuries, including death; discontinue therapy immediately if patient experiences a complex sleep behavior

  
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A Qualitative Investigation of Long-term Zopiclone Use and Sleep Quality among Vietnam War Veterans with PTSD - Objective: To examine the effects of the extended use of zopiclone among a cohort of patients with combat-related PTSD. Methods: We conducted a 6-month follow-up cohort study of zopiclone usage ...
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