Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plant. The plant contains the mind-altering chemical THC and other related compounds. People use marijuana by smoking, eating, drinking, or inhaling it. Smoking and vaping THC-rich extracts from the marijuana plant (a practice called dabbing) is on the rise.
THC overactivates certain brain cell receptors, resulting in effects such as:
- Altered senses
- Changes in mood
- Impaired body movement
- Difficulty with thinking and problem-solving
- Impaired memory and learning
Marijuana use can have a wide range of health effects, including:
- Hallucinations and paranoia
- Breathing problems
- Possible harm to a fetus's brain in pregnant women
The amount of THC in marijuana has been increasing steadily in recent decades, creating more harmful effects in some people. It's unlikely that a person will fail a drug test or get high from passive exposure by inhaling secondhand marijuana smoke. There aren't any reports of teens and adults dying from using marijuana alone, but marijuana use can cause some very uncomfortable side effects, such as anxiety and paranoia and, in rare cases, extreme psychotic reactions. Marijuana use can lead to a substance use disorder, which can develop into an addiction in severe cases. No medications are currently available to treat marijuana use disorder, but behavioral support can be effective.
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States.
The term 'marijuana' (sometimes spelled 'marihuana') is Mexican in origin and typically refers to any part of - or any one of - the three distinctive subspecies of the cannabis plant: cannabis sativa (which tends to grow tall and stalky), cannabis indica (which tends to grow smaller and bushier), or cannabis ruderalis (found primarily in Russia and Eastern Europe.) Marijuana is the third most popular recreational drug in America (behind only alcohol and tobacco), and has been used by nearly 100 million Americans. According to government surveys, some 25 million Americans have smoked marijuana in the past year, and more than 14 million do so regularly despite laws against its use.
Legality (December 2020):
Why spelled with an H:
So why does Michigan (and Cannabis Attorneys of Michigan) spell marihuana with an "h" anyway? Michigan's spelling is primarily sourced from the original spelling of the word, which first appears in US law in the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, drafted by the infamous Harry Anslinger, head of the Bureau of Narcotics under FDR. Its origins are in , Mexican-Spanish, and the later modern spelling using a "j" was an uniquely American one. Canada spells it with an "h" as well, as does the federal government on occasion. Our firm uses the "h" spelling out of deference to the Michigan spelling. Both "j" and "h" spellings are equally accurate and acceptable, but if you are conflicted, you can always just use "cannabis".
Food products infused with marijuana. Though smoking marijuana is the most prevalent method of consumption, eating marijuana is quickly becoming a popular way to consume the drug. Brownies are among the most common food products infused with marijuana, however, almost any food product may be infused with marijuana and eaten. In addition to placing marijuana directly in food, marijuana-infused cooking oil can be used when frying or searing food, and marijuana-infused butter can be spread directly on prepared food. These marijuana edibles are more common in states that have legalized marijuana and also states that permit medical marijuana use.
The effects from smoking marijuana only takes minutes. Edibles, however, take between 1-3 hours because food is absorbed into the bloodstream through the liver. Because it takes longer, the user may end up consuming longer amounts of the drug while thinking the drug isn't working. The amount of THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, is very difficult to measure and is often unknown in these food products. If the user has other medications in his or her system, their body may metabolize different amounts of THC, causing THC levels in the bloodstream to dangerously increase five-fold.
Marijuana in the Body:
When marijuana is smoked, it travels down the windpipe and into the lungs. Once in the lungs, the smoke passes through the bronchi and into the alveoli (air sacs) where the THC passes into the bloodstream. THC is then absorbed by most tissues and organs in the body, especially fat cells and organs such as the brain. The "high" reaches its peak in approximately 10-30 minutes and will last from two to eight hours, depending on the amount of marijuana used. It takes a week to one month for all the chemicals from one marijuana cigarette to leave the body. As more marijuana is smoked, THC accumulates in the cells and the body is never drug free. When chronic users stop using marijuana, it takes about three months for the accumulation of THC to leave the body. When marijuana is eaten, it enters the stomach and is broken down for digestion by enzymes. At this time, THC passes into the bloodstream. Smoking marijuana puts 5-10 times more THC into the body than eating it.
Endocannabinoids and What They Do:
To understand what marijuana does to a user in the long run, it's necessary to look at how the drug works in the brain. Marijuana is as effective as it is because its active chemical compound (tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC) mimics substances called endocannabinoids that the human body produces on its own. In the brain, endocannabinoids work by controlling the production of neurotransmitters (chemical substances that facilitate communication between the brain and the central nervous system). In the rest of the body, endocannabinoids relax muscles, reduce inflammation, protect damaged tissue, and regulate appetite and metabolism, among many other functions. Because endocannabinoids are so important, the brain has readymade receptors for them. Since the THC in cannabis mimics natural endocannabinoids, marijuana is unique among other drugs in that regard. The same physiological effects that arise from the normal application of endocannabinoids are triggered with the use of marijuana, especially in the brain. This is why smokers experience memory issues, augmented levels of pain, and alterations to emotion, pleasure, and movement control.
Marijuana is the slang term for portions of the Cannabis plant which has three species: Cannabis sativa; Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. The flowering plant, which can grow to 16 feet (5 meters) high, likely originated in the Central Asian steppe, near the Altai or Tian Shian Mountains, and was first cultivated in China and India. It is one of the oldest psychoactive substances used by man. The leaves, stems, flower buds and extracts from the marijuana plant can be eaten, brewed in a tea or put into a tincture. It can also be vaporized using an e-cigarette pen. There are hundreds of compounds in marijuana, but scientists believe the one responsible for the drugs' psychoactive effects is tetrahydrocannbinol, or THC. THC binds to cannabinoid receptors throughout the body, and marijuana's "high" comes from THC's binding to brain regions responsible for pleasure, time perception, and pain. This binding in turn triggers a chemical cascade that eventually stimulates the production of dopamine, a brain chemical often called the "feel good chemical," which is part of the body's reward system. Subjective effects really vary," Earleywine said. "Folks who like it emphasize the euphoria and the relaxation, and then depending on the strain, it's mildly stimulating, or mildly sedating.
A 10,000-year-old archaeological site in Taiwan contains pottery fragments with a twisted strand imprinted around the edge, which some believe was made by pressing a rope made of hemp, the fibers made from the cannabis plant, across the wet clay. Hemp fabric was widely used in ancient China to make clothing. A Chinese medicinal textbook, the Pen Ts'ao, which is credited to an emperor in 2800 B.C., claims that "Ma," or marijuana, was a powerful medicinal plant. Siberian burial mounds have traces of burnt cannabis seeds dating to 3000 B.C. The plant was first given its taxonomic identification by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 and thoroughly described to Westerners in the 1800s, when the medical doctor William O'Shaughnessy gave a report to the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta in India in 1839. The doctor described its effects on people and did a few case reports on "gunjah," the Indian name for the drug. The drug first became popular in Europe when Napoleon's troops returned from Egypt.
In the Americas, Cannabis extract was a popular medicinal drug in the 1800s. But in the 1900s, the tide began to turn against the drug. In the 1920s, Mexican immigrants became associated with the smoked, recreational version of the drug, and anti-immigrant sentiments fueled marijuana prohibition. By the 1930s, marijuana was banned in 24 states. The newly minted Federal Bureau of Narcotics launched a campaign against the drug. By 1937, Congress passed the Marihuana Tax Act, which effectively banned marijuana except for a few medicinal purposes. In the 1950s, the Narcotics Control Act and the Boggs Act stiffened penalties for marijuana possession, with first-time offenses requiring two to 10 year sentences and a minimum $20,000 fine. Penalties were relaxed in the 1970s, but President Ronald Reagan increased federal penalties for marijuana possession in the 1980s. As of early 2017, 26 states and the District of Columbia have legalized pot in some form of medical and/or recreational use, with other states soon to follow.
NIH - Letter From the Director:
Changes in marijuana policies across states legalizing marijuana for medical and/or recreational use suggest that marijuana is gaining greater acceptance in our society. Thus, it is particularly important for people to understand what is known about both the adverse health effects and the potential therapeutic benefits linked to marijuana. Because marijuana impairs short-term memory and judgment and distorts perception, it can impair performance in school or at work and make it dangerous to drive. It also affects brain systems that are still maturing through young adulthood, so regular use by teens may have negative and long-lasting effects on their cognitive development, putting them at a competitive disadvantage and possibly interfering with their well-being in other ways.
Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?
Cannabis and currently available compounds derived from marijuana - like CBD - are not an adequate treatment for glaucoma, or any eye condition. To treat glaucoma, eye pressure must be managed 24 hours a day. Marijuana is not a practical treatment for constant use. And more research is still needed into the exact effects of cannabis and cannabis compounds on eye pressure and glaucoma. The American Academy of Ophthalmology does not recommend marijuana or other cannabis products for the treatment of glaucoma. The American Glaucoma Society and the Canadian Ophthalmological Society agree.
Cannabis for Multiple Sclerosis?
There have been numerous studies conducted to evaluate the effects of cannabinoids on MS-related pain, spasticity, and bladder symptoms. Most studies involved relatively small numbers of people with MS and the outcome measures varied among studies. However, reviews of published studies have generally shown that synthetic cannabinoids favorably impact symptoms of pain and spasticity. Less in known about the impact of inhaled or ingested botanical cannabis on MS symptoms. Based on existing evidence, cannabis products are probably effective for treating patient-reported symptoms of spasticity and pain. Based on existing evidence, cannabis is probably not effective for MS-related tremor or urinary incontinence. People with MS should be aware of potential adverse effects of cannabis products, including new or worsening cognitive symptoms, psychosis, tolerance and dependence, as well as drug-drug interactions.
Effects of Marijuana on the Lungs:
Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems that tobacco smokers have. These individuals may have a daily cough and phlegm, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, and more frequent chest colds. Continuing to smoke marijuana can lead to abnormal functioning of lung tissue injured or destroyed by marijuana smoke. Regardless of the THC content, the amount of tar inhaled by marijuana smokers and the level of carbon monoxide absorbed are three to five times greater than among tobacco smokers. This may be due to the marijuana users inhaling more deeply and holding the smoke in the lungs.
Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs:
Despite marijuana's legalization in many states, it may be harmful to your health, particularly if you have lung disease or other medical conditions. The harmful effects of tobacco smoke are well known, but we have less information about the health effects of marijuana. Few research studies have been done since marijuana remains illegal in most countries, and since marijuana can be inhaled in many ways (e.g. water pipes, joints, vaping etc). It is likely that in frequent users (and some less frequent users), marijuana harms the lungs, and that there is not a safe way to smoke marijuana. Marijuana smoke may increase your risk of lung cancer. Marijuana smoke contains over 450 unique chemicals including many cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens) similar to tobacco smoke.
Top Ten Marijuana Myths:
- Marijuana is harmless
- Marijuana is medicine
- The marijuana 'high' only lasts for a few hours
- Presence-in-system testing is unreliable because it does not measure impairment
- Marijuana is not addictive
- Marijuana can be regulated like alcohol
- Marijuana is not a gateway drug
- Marijuana is safer than cigarettes or alcohol
- There are no long-term effects from marijuana use
- It is safer to drive with marijuana in your system
Marijuana and Alcohol:
Marijuana is a depressant and a hallucinogen, which means that while it works to lower stress and anxiety, makes it harder to think straight, and interferes with memory and movement abilities. People commonly combine marijuana and alcohol, and as marijuana becomes legal for recreational purposes in many states, this practice is likely to increase. Both of these drugs have many similar effects, but act through different mechanisms. Both result in sedation, alterations in judgment, perceptual effects that include time distortions and even minor hallucinogenic effects, and physical effects that include slowed reflexes and decreased motor coordination.
Addiction to Marijuana:
When an individual uses marjiuana, cannabinoid receptors in the brain are activated by a neurotransmitter called Anandamide. THC mimics and blocks the actions natural neurotransmitters like Anandamide, to the point where the body no longer produces sufficient Anandamide on its own. The user's brain gets reprogrammed to need marijuana just to feel normal. When the user stops bringing more THC into the body, they often experience withdrawal symptoms because of the resulting lack of Anandamide. Wanting to quit using marijuana, but being unable to do so, is a strong indication of an addiction.
Is Marijuana Addictive?
Numerous research studies show that marijuana is indeed an addictive substance. The rate of addiction to marijuana has increased for all age groups. Teens are using the drug at younger ages. About one out of every six adolescents who use marijuana develop addiction to it, and half the people who receive treatment for marijuana use are under the age of 25. While the frequency of use seems to have remained the same over the past several years, adults are becoming dependent on marijuana more often. Theories about potential reasons for that increase include increased access to marijuana that is of higher potency, as well as a lower age at which many individuals first use this drug. The symptoms of marijuana withdrawal are similar to those of other drugs, especially tobacco. Those symptoms usually start one to two days after last using marijuana and include irritability, anger, depression, insomnia, drug craving, and decreased appetite.
Marijuana and Teens:
Many teenagers try marijuana and some use it regularly. Teenage marijuana use is at its highest level in 30 years, and today's teens are more likely to use marijuana than tobacco. Many states allow recreational use of marijuana in adults ages 21 and over. Recreational marijuana use by children and teenagers is not legal in anywhere in the United States. Today's marijuana plants are grown differently than in the past and can contain two to three times more tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the ingredient that makes people high. Marijuana use in teens can lead to long-term consequences. Teens rarely think they will end up with problems related to marijuana use, so it is important to begin talking about the risks with your child early and continue this discussion over time. Talking with your child about marijuana can help delay the age of first use and help protect their brain.
Tips for Teens:
- Q. Isn't smoking marijuana less dangerous than smoking cigarettes?
A. No. It's even worse. Five joints a day can be as harmful as 20 cigarettes a day.
- Q. Can people become addicted to marijuana?
A. Yes. Research confirms you can become hooked on marijuana
- Marijuana affects your brain. THC (the active ingredient in marijuana) affects the nerve cells in the part of the brain where memories are formed.
- Know the risks. Marijuana affects your coordination and reaction time, raising your risk of injury or death from car crashes and other accidents. In 2011, nearly 456,000 emergency room visits were related to marijuana use.
- Marijuana affects your lungs. Marijuana smoke deposits four times more tar in the lungs and contains 50 percent to 70 percent more cancer-causing substances than tobacco smoke does.
- Marijuana is not always what it seems. Marijuana can be laced with substances such as PCP, formaldehyde, or codeine cough syrup without your knowledge. "Blunts" - hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana - sometimes have crack cocaine added.
How to Talk About Marijuana with a Teen:
The parts of the adolescent brain that develop first are those responsible for physical coordination, emotion and motivation. However, the part of the brain that controls reasoning and impulses - known as the prefrontal cortex - does not fully mature until the age of 25. It's as if, while the other parts of the brain are shouting, the prefrontal cortex is not quite ready to play referee. This can have noticeable effects on behavior. Unfortunately, there isn't a script for talking about marijuana, but there are some common arguments and questions that you're likely to hear - and suggestions for how to respond.
Scope of the Youth Issue:
Marijuana Use in the United States In 2015: more than 22 million Americans aged 12 or older were current users of marijuana.
- Adolescents aged 12-17: 1.8 million
- Young adults aged 18-25: 6.9 million
- Adults aged 26 or older: 13.6 million
Does Persistent Cannabis Use Show IQ Decline?
Persistent cannabis use over 20 y was associated with neuropsychological decline, and greater decline was evident for more persistent users. This effect was concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users, a finding consistent with results of several studies showing executive functioning or verbal IQ deficits among adolescent-onset but not adult-onset chronic cannabis users, as well as studies showing impairment of learning, memory, and executive functions in samples of adolescent cannabis users. Increasing efforts should be directed toward delaying the onset of cannabis use by young people, particularly given the recent trend of younger ages of cannabis-use initiation in the United States and evidence that fewer adolescents believe that cannabis use is associated with serious health risk.
In the present study, the most persistent adolescent-onset cannabis users evidenced an average 8-point IQ decline from childhood to adulthood.
Is Marijuana a Gateway Drug:
One common myth is that marijuana is a gateway drug that almost always leads to the use of "harder" drugs. While there is some evidence that exposure to marijuana may make it easier to use other substances, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) suggests that most people who use marijuana do not go on to try to become addicted to other drugs.
Is it possible to "overdose" or have a "bad reaction" to marijuana?
A fatal overdose is unlikely, but that doesn't mean marijuana is harmless. The signs of using too much marijuana are similar to the typical effects of using marijuana but more severe. These signs may include extreme confusion, anxiety, paranoia, panic, fast heart rate, delusions or hallucinations, increased blood pressure, and severe nausea or vomiting. In some cases, these reactions can lead to unintentional injury such as a motor vehicle crash, fall, or poisoning.
Most studies have not found an increase in the chance for birth defects among babies prenatally exposed to "occasional" marijuana use. It is difficult to accurately study marijuana use during pregnancy. Differences in brain activity, behavior, and sleeping patterns of infants and children exposed to marijuana in pregnancy have been reported in some studies. It is believed that these children might have more problems with attention, impulsive behavior, short term memory, academic performance and difficulty at work as an adult. These problems have been seen more often in children whose mothers were "heavy" marijuana users (smoked one or more marijuana cigarettes per day). The evidence is not conclusive and some studies report conflicting results. While most studies are reassuring regarding birth defects, without good studies among heavy marijuana users, and because of other potential pregnancy complications it is best to avoid marijuana during pregnancy.
Marijuana can be passed to infants through their mother's breast milk. Marijuana may also affect the quality and quantity of breast milk that you make. There are no good studies on how marijuana in breast milk might affect a nursing baby. Although no consistent effects have been noticed in infants exposed to marijuana through breast milk, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine advise that breastfeeding mothers avoid using marijuana.
In women, long-term use of marijuana may affect the menstrual cycle and lead to a reduction in hormones involved in reproduction and fertility. In men, an association with reduced sperm count has been seen. These side effects might make it harder to get pregnant. The effects on fertility appear to go away when marijuana use is stopped.
Can medical marijuana help with seizure disorders?
Medical marijuana received a lot of attention a few years ago when parents said that a special form of the drug helped control seizures in their children. The FDA recently approved Epidiolex, which is made from CBD, as a therapy for people with very severe or hard-to-treat seizures. In studies, some people had a dramatic drop in seizures after taking this drug.
Has the FDA approved medical marijuana?
The FDA has approved two man-made cannabinoid medicines - dronabinol (Marinol, Syndros) and nabilone (Cesamet) - to treat nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy. The cannabidiol Epidiolex was approved in 2018 for treating seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome.
The most common use for medical marijuana in the United States is for pain control. While marijuana isn't strong enough for severe pain (for example, post-surgical pain or a broken bone), it is quite effective for the chronic pain that plagues millions of Americans, especially as they age. Part of its allure is that it is clearly safer than opiates (it is impossible to overdose on and far less addictive) and it can take the place of NSAIDs such as Advil or Aleve, if people can't take them due to problems with their kidneys or ulcers or GERD. In particular, marijuana appears to ease the pain of multiple sclerosis, and nerve pain in general. This is an area where few other options exist, and those that do, such as Neurontin, Lyrica, or opiates are highly sedating. Patients claim that marijuana allows them to resume their previous activities without feeling completely out of it and disengaged. Along these lines, marijuana is said to be a fantastic muscle relaxant, and people swear by its ability to lessen tremors in Parkinson's disease. I have also heard of its use quite successfully for fibromyalgia, endometriosis, interstitial cystitis, and most other conditions where the final common pathway is chronic pain.
Aunt Mary, BC Bud, Chronic, Dope, Gangster, Ganja, Grass, Hash, Herb, Joint, Mary Jane, Mota, Pot, Reefer, Sinsemilla, Skunk, Smoke, Weed, Yerba
Effects of Marijuana:
The effects of the 120-plus cannabinoids present in cannabis are mostly unknown, but the most potent psychoactive agent identified to date is THC. Some studies have shown that THC affects areas of the brain that control memory creation and attention. It also disrupts other parts of the brain, adversely affecting balance, posture, coordination, and reaction time. People use marijuana to achieve a feeling of elation (a high), giddiness, and relaxation. Marijuana also produces sensory perception changes; colors may seem brighter, music more vivid, and emotions more profound. Some people experience feelings of paranoia, increase in appetite, higher heart rate, reduction in blood pressure, nausea, even though some cannabinoids may help reduce nausea.
Marijuana concentrates contain extraordinarily high THC levels that could range from 40 to 80 percent. This form of marijuana can be up to four times stronger in THC content than high grade or top shelf marijuana, which normally measures around 20 percent THC levels. Many users of marijuana concentrates prefer the e-cigarette/vaporizer because it's smokeless, odorless, and easy to hide or conceal. The user takes a small amount of marijuana concentrate, referred to as a "dab," then heats the substance using the e-cigarette/vaporizer producing vapors that ensures an instant "high" effect upon the user. Using an e-cigarette/vaporizer to ingest marijuana concentrates is commonly referred to as "dabbing" or "vaping." Common street names include: 710 (the word "OIL" flipped and spelled backwards), wax, ear wax, honey oil, budder, butane hash oil, butane honey oil (BHO), shatter, dabs (dabbing), black glass, and errl.
Q: My downstairs neighbor smokes marijuana every night on his balcony. Will I test positive for marijuana from the second-hand smoke?
No. It is possible THC (the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana) may be in your system and you could experience a "contact high," but even this is doubtful under these circumstances. With the initial and confirmatory concentration cut-off levels established by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA), passive inhalation will not produce a positive test result for marijuana.
Does marijuana impair driving the way alcohol does?
Yes and no. Marijuana can affect perception and psychomotor performance, changes that could impair driving ability. But in driving studies, marijuana produces little or no car-handling impairment - consistently less than produced by moderate doses of alcohol and many legal medications. Mixing marijuana and alcohol together amplifies potential risks. Surveys of fatally injured drivers show that when THC is detected in the blood, alcohol is often detected as well. That said, it is never a good idea to get behind the wheel when intoxicated, even if just from marijuana alone.For some people, marijuana may play a role in bad driving, but the overall rate of highway accidents does not appear to be significantly affected by marijuana's widespread use. Also, people who frequently use marijuana appear to develop a tolerance to marijuana's impairing effects.
Drug Testing Marijuana:
The initial effects created by the THC in marijuana wear off after an hour or two, but the chemicals stay in your body for much longer. The terminal half-life of THC can range from about 20 hours to 10 days, depending on the amount and potency of the marijuana used. This means that if you take 1 milligram of THC that has a half-life of 20 hours, you will still have 0.031 milligrams of THC in your body more than four days later. The longer the half-life, the longer the THC lingers in your body. In 2011, 57 percent of U.S. businesses required prospective employees to pass a drug test. Drug tests detect the five metabolites that THC breaks down into before passing into urine. Detectable amounts can remain in the system for several days or weeks following use, depending on potency and amount consumed. One of the most common tests is the immunoassay, in which urine is mixed with a solution containing an antibody specific to certain metabolites, typically tagged with fluorescent dye or a radioactive substance. The amount of fluorescent light or radioactivity indicates the concentration of metabolites in the sample.
Curaleaf the World's Biggest Marijuana Seller:
The American marijuana chain Curaleaf Holdings solidified its lead as the country's biggest legal cannabis operation, saying Wednesday it has agreed to buy a privately held rival GR Companies. The chain, based in the Midwest, operates 20 dispensaries under the Grassroots name and has licenses for 41 more. The combined entity will cover 19 states, with 68 operating dispensaries and licenses for an additional 63. Its revenues would have exceeded those of any pot producer - including Canadian leaders like Canopy Growth (CGC) and Aurora Cannabis (ACB) - at more than $250 million in 2018 and nearly $90 million in the March 2019 quarter. The consensus forecast for Curaleaf sales in 2020 is about $900 million, according to FactSet. Grassroots has been reported to be on track for 2020 sales of $350 million.
The Marijuana Market is Significant:
The total cannabis market in Canada, including medical and illegal as well as legal recreational products, is expected to generate up to $7.17 billion in total sales in 2019. Legal sales are expected to contribute more than half of this total - up to $4.34 billion - in the first year. Current and likely consumers expect to pay slightly more for legal products, with the former saying they're willing to pay 10 percent more.
Majority of recreational cannabis sold will be legal:
Canadians who are already consuming cannabis expect to buy nearly two-thirds of their products from legal retailers once they can. High product quality and integrity (as affirmed by quality testing) as well as a range of competitive price points will be needed to persuade current consumers to move their purchases over to legal sources.
Niche branding, as with wines?
Now that adult marijuana use is legal in California, the state government is starting to write new rules to treat marijuana growers someone like winemakers and allow areas to be considered an official growing region. The hope is that, by doing so, it could provide a lifeline for small farmers. The state government of California is currently developing rules that will define whether a geographic area can be deemed a marijuana growing region. For small farmers, who are threatened by industrial competitors and the cost of regulation, survival may depend on customers caring about the specific location and soil in which their cannabis is grown.
Urban Dictionary Marijuana:
God's gift to mankind - and God saith "Let there be happiness", and there was marijuana
Cannabis is globally the most commonly used psychoactive substance under international control.
In 2013, an estimated 181.8 million people aged 15-64 years used cannabis for nonmedical purposes globally (UNODC, 2015). There is an increasing demand for treatment for cannabis-use disorders and associated health conditions in high- and middle-income countries. Almost 20 years have passed since the World Health Organization (WHO) published a report on the health consequences of cannabis use. Since then there has been significant research on the effects of cannabis use on health. I am therefore pleased to present this update on the health and social consequences of nonmedical cannabis use, with a special focus on the effects on young people and on long-term frequent use. This report focuses on nonmedical use of cannabis, building on contributions from a broad range of experts and researchers from different parts of the world. It aims to present current knowledge on the impact of nonmedical cannabis use on health, from its impact on brain development to its role in respiratory diseases.
Cannabis has psychoactive and physiological effects when consumed. The immediate desired effects from consuming cannabis include relaxation and euphoria (the "high" or "stoned" feeling), a general alteration of conscious perception, increased awareness of sensation, increased libido and distortions in the perception of time and space. At higher doses, effects can include altered body image, auditory and/or visual illusions, pseudohallucinations and ataxia from selective impairment of polysynaptic reflexes.
- A psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant
- Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within food, or as an extract
- Cannabis has various mental and physical effects, which include euphoria, altered states of mind and sense of time, difficulty concentrating, impaired short-term memory and body movement, relaxation, and an increase in appetite.
- Onset of effects is felt within minutes when smoked, and about 30 to 60 minutes when cooked and eaten.
- The effects last for two to six hours, depending on the amount used.
- At high doses, mental effects can include anxiety, delusions (including ideas of reference), hallucinations, panic, paranoia, and psychosis.
- Physical effects include increased heart rate, difficulty breathing, nausea, and behavioral problems in children whose mothers used cannabis during pregnancy.
- Short-term side effects may also include dry mouth and red eyes.
- Long-term adverse effects may include addiction, decreased mental ability in those who started regular use as adolescents, chronic coughing, and susceptibility to respiratory infections.
It is the most commonly used illegal drug in the world, though it is also legal in some jurisdictions, with the highest use among adults (as of 2018) in Zambia, the United States, Canada, and Nigeria.
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