Fencamfamin is a camphane derivative, although lacking typical sympathomimetic properties. It is structurally related to the phenylethylamines. It is a central nervous stimulant with pharmacological properties similar to amphetamine. Fencamfamin developed primarily as appetite suppressant or pscyhostimulant, not to increase awareness. Fencamfamin reduces REM sleep and prevents fatigue in subjects deprived of sleep. Fencamfamin raises a mood.
Fencamfamin (Glucoenergan, Reactivan):
A stimulant which was developed in the 1960's as an appetite suppressant, but was later withdrawn for this application due to problems with dependence and abuse. It is around half the potency of dexamphetamine, and is prescribed at a dose of 10-60mg, although abusers of the drug tend to rapidly develop tolerance and escalate their dose. Fencamfamin is used for the the treatment of depressive fatigue in convalescence and other debilitated states as well as in the treatment of depressive day-time fatigue, lack of concentration and lethargy. Fencamfamine increases drive and mental alertness and an elevation of mood and a general feeling of well-being. It is a central nervous system stimulant, which increases locomotor activity. It is especially useful in patients with chronic conditions due to its favorable safety profile.
Fencamfamine acts as an indirect dopamine agonist. It releases dopamine by a similar mechanism to amphetamines, but is 10x less potent than dexamphetamine at producing this effect. The drug seems to inhibit the dopamine transporter (DAT) that removes dopamine from the synapses. This inhibition of DAT blocks the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the amount of dopamine in the synapse. It also stimulates the release of dopamine and norepinephrine into the synapse. Finally, it increases the magnitude of dopamine release after a stimulus, increasing the salience of stimulus. Also unlike amphetamines, fencamfamine does not inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase enzymes and so is somewhat safer. Some experiments also suggest a role for opioid receptors in the activity of fencamfamine, as low doses can cause paradoxical sedation, and some effects of the drug are blocked by naloxone.
Fencamfamin is still used, though rarely, for treating depressive day-time fatigue, lack of concentration and lethargy, particularly in individuals who have chronic medical conditions, as its favourable safety profile makes it the most suitable drug in some cases.
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